There is no agreement on a single cause of stuttering. Most experts agree that stuttering likely results from an interaction of several important factors. Typically four factors are cited as significant. Those factors are:

  • Genetics/heredity: there is a strong family influence on the appearance of stuttering. Research studies have supported this strong family link across the generations, among siblings, and especially identical twins.
  • Child development: children who experience delays in other areas of communication, motor skills and cognitive skills may be at a greater risk for stuttering onset.
  • The family dynamics: children in households where there is a difference between the demand to perform and the capacity to do so with regard to communication, are at risk.
  • Neurophysiology: recent brain imaging studies, observing live brain activation on conversation and other linguistic tasks reveal difference in brain performance between persons who stutter and those who are typically fluent.

For more information, visit the Center for Fluency Enhancement page.

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