There is no agreement on a single cause of stuttering. Most experts agree that stuttering likely results from an interaction of several important factors. Typically four factors are cited as significant. Those factors are:
- Genetics/heredity: there is a strong family influence on the appearance of stuttering. Research studies have supported this strong family link across the generations, among siblings, and especially identical twins.
- Child development: children who experience delays in other areas of communication, motor skills and cognitive skills may be at a greater risk for stuttering onset.
- The family dynamics: children in households where there is a difference between the demand to perform and the capacity to do so with regard to communication, are at risk.
- Neurophysiology: recent brain imaging studies, observing live brain activation on conversation and other linguistic tasks reveal difference in brain performance between persons who stutter and those who are typically fluent.
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